Springs are a critical component in most applications within our everyday lives and are often taken for granted as they are commonly hidden from view. Products that use springs in their operation, such as switches, valves, motion control, and many more, would have an erratic function or even fail without them.

Although they provide a vital function, we rarely give a second thought as to how they are designed and made and the technology used in the manufacturing process. Read on to discover the essential aspects that our expert engineers consider when creating springs.

Anatomy of a Spring

Every spring, irrespective of type, stems from a basic anatomy that defines its functionality. Let’s explore the essential components that structure these tiny marvels of engineering: coils, ends, and dimensions.


Coil count and coil size form the backbone of spring design. Coupled with material choice, they essentially dictate the spring’s capability. The coil count is the total number of coils present in a spring, which impacts the spring’s flexibility and strength. Higher coil counts generally equate to more flexibility.

The size or diameter of the coil also governs the spring’s characteristics. Smaller diameter springs offer more resistance to loads, proving useful in applications demanding strength over flexibility.


Spring ends play a crucial role in how springs connect to the application. In compression springs, for instance, the ends are often designed to sit flat. There are several types of ends, including closed and squared (most common), closed and ground for more stability, and open ends.


The overall dimensions of a spring, including its length, total coils, and wire diameter, contribute significantly to its performance. Taking precise measurements ensures springs fit their applications perfectly, functioning with the efficacy intended.

Calculating Spring Rate

The spring rate, or stiffness, is another crucial factor in spring function. It is  a measure of the force required to compress or extend a spring by a particular distance and is  calculated using the formula:

Spring Rate (k) = Load (F) / Deflection (Δx)

In practical terms, for a compression spring, if a force of 10N causes a deflection of 5mm, the spring rate is 10N/5mm = 2N/mm.

Understanding the anatomy of springs fosters greater success in selection and application. Through these fundamentals, at Airedale Springs, we drive precision in the intricate process of spring design, crafting meticulously to ensure our springs align flawlessly with your needs.

Different Types of Springs

Our team of spring manufacturers know the concise role each spring plays in a specific application, and we have refined our specialisation in several essential springs that serve various industries.

Small Springs for Electronics

Miniaturisation is a trending phenomenon in today’s technological era. Be it intricate devices or compact electronic components, the requirement for small, efficient parts is increasing. We readily meet this demand with our small springs for electronics. These are miniature components designed for precision performance in electronic devices. Despite their diminutive size, these springs undergo a stringent manufacturing process that involves precise coiling, stress-relieving, and finishing processes to ensure robust, reliable performance in the heart of your devices.

Compression Springs

A significant part of today’s machinery relies on compression springs. These components are designed to resist compression, making them ideal for applications needing a resistive force. Our compression springs provide excellent longevity and functionality, even under high-pressure operating environments.

Torsion Springs

In many mechanisms, rotational movement is the core operation. Our torsion springs are manufactured to provide torque or store rotational energy, making them pivotal in applications like clothespins, door hinges, garage doors and more. Crafted with precision and utilising optimal-grade materials, our torsion springs offer excellent resistance to external pressures, promising a balance between flexibility and rigidity.

Tension Springs

When it boils down to maintaining tension between two surfaces, our tension springs take precedence. Crafted to absorb and store energy, they offer resistance to a pulling force and typically get stiffer as they are extended. Our extension springs handle the needed tension in a variety of devices, ranging from farm machinery to complex medical devices, contributing to a whole host of operational successes.

Essential Material Considerations

Material selection is also a critical consideration. Different materials lend themselves to diverse applications; choosing the right one is paramount to enhancing durability and optimal functioning.

Stainless steel is often used as it is renowned for its corrosion resistance; this material is perfect for challenging environments that may involve exposure to elements or chemicals. Yet, it might not be suitable where high strength is needed due to its lower yield strength.

On the other hand, we have high-carbon steel. This material brings robustness and high fatigue resistance, ideal for automobile springs and other heavy-duty applications. However, its innate susceptibility to corrosion necessitates additional surface treatments for longevity.

However, options are not limited to these two. There are many alloys like Inconel or Hastelloy. These unsurpassed options offer exceptional resistance to extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Yet, they come at a higher cost. This is why our engineers will often advocate their use when less expensive alternatives can’t settle application demands.

Bespoke Spring Design and Manufacturing at Airedale Springs

In the spring sector, “one size fits all” is a myth. At Airedale Springs, we embrace our role as a custom spring manufacturer because every application is unique, and we take great pride in offering a wide selection of spring designs.

We work closely with clients, ensuring our springs meet their specifications, whether that’s a small spring for a nifty electronic device or a robust compression spring for heavy machinery. The real essence of our work lies in developing our designs with your ideas to create the perfect spring solution for you. To learn more,  get in touch with our team, and we’d be happy to assist you.